Type References

Each Scalar, Enum, Object, and InputObject type has a unique name. NonNull and List are wrapper types that modify named types. Most nodes in GraphQL have a type, such as fields and arguments.

A type can be referenced by importing and passing the actual Python object around. However, this can get tedious, and can cause circular import issues when splitting up definitions across multiple files. Magql allows referring to types by name instead of the Python object.

import magql

magql.Field(magql.String)
magql.Field("String")

It’s possible to create circular references to types. Within an object, a field’s type can be the object itself, or less directly through a chain of other fields. For example, a User with a friend field that is another user. In this case, you must refer to the type by name, this is called a forward reference.

import magql

User = magql.Object("User", fields={
    "username": "String",
    "friend" "User"
})

Resolving References

The schema must have a defined type object for every type name in the graph. Calling Schema.to_graphql() will traverse the graph and collect all named type objects, then replace any string references with the corresponding object.

In the example below, the User object is defined when defining the second field, so the schema will know about it and apply it to the "User" name in the first field. Order does not matter, as long as the object is defined somewhere in the schema.

import magql

schema = magql.Schema()
schema.query.fields["user"] = magql.Field("User")
schema.mutation.fields["create_user"] = magql.Field(magql.Object("User"))

You can also tell the schema about a type directly, so that every reference can be a string, avoiding the nested definition above. You can pass the type when creating the schema, or by calling Schema.add_type().

import magql

User = magql.Object("User")
schema = magql.Schema(types=[User])
import magql

schema = magql.Schema()
User = magql.Object("User")
schema.add_type(User)

If you try to call Schema.to_graphql() while some names are still undefined, you’ll get an error message.

Could not find definitions for the following type names: User. All types must be
defined somewhere in the graph, or passed when creating the Schema.

Wrapping Types

Every type object has two properties, non_null and list which return corresponding NonNull and List. List and NonNull have these properties too, so you can create arbitrarily nested structures. When using a string reference, you can use the same syntax as GraphQL to apply wrappers.

In the following example, both fields will have the same type, a non-null list of non-null strings.

import magql

magql.Field(magql.String.non_null.list.non_null)
magql.Field("[String!]!")